TRANSLATIONS: Analects Of Confucius BOOK II Chapters 19-24


The Duke Ai asked, saying, “What should be done to gain people’s submission?”
Confucius replied, “Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.”


Chi K-ang asked how to cause the people to revere their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to follow the path of virtue. The Master said, “Let him preside over them with gravity; then they will worship him. Let him be filial and kind to all; then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.”


1. Someone addressed Confucius, saying, “Sir, why’re you not engaged in the government?”

2. The Master said, “What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety? ‘You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. Thee qualities are displayed in the government.’ This also constitutes the exercises of government. Why must there be THAT, making one be the government?”


1. Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

2. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of hundred ages, it may be known.”


1. The Master said, “For the man to sacrifice to a spirit which doesn’t belong to him is a flattery.

2. “To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage.”

*End of Book II*


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